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Encryption Algorithms

    Yahoo.com

  • Federal Information Processing Standard
    NIST.gov Crypto ToolKit
    nist.gov/aes AES

    iacr.org International Association for Cryptologic Research
    www.cryptography.com

    ScramDisk.clara.net PGP-DH-RSA
    docstore.mik.ua Algorithms used by ssh1/ssh2
    EncryptionandDecryption.com crypto glossary
    pgp.com pgp glossary
    rsa.com glossary
    x5.net

    mycrypt.net Encryption Algorithms
    emailprivacy.info crypto faq

  • Asymmetric Algorithm == public key cryptography with private and public keys

    AES = Advanced Encryption Standard
      nist.gov/aes AES
      csrc.nist.gov Nov 2001 FIPS-197 = AES
      csrc.nist.gov AES
    • AES was developed by two Belgian cryptologists, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen
    • designed to replace DES
    • uses 128, 192, or 256bit encryption key
    • aes-128
    • aes-192
    • aes-256

    Blowfish ( block cipher )
    Twofish
      CounterPaine.com twofish
    • Bruce Schneier, J. Kelsey, D. Whiting, D. Wagner, C. Hall, and N. Ferguson
    • 128, 192, or 256 bits
      • SSH-2 specifies 256-bit keys
    • opensource

    CAMELLIA
      isl.ntt.co.jp Camellia ( block cipher )
    • Camellia RFC 3713
    • Camellia RFC 4312
    • Camellia is a symmetric cipher with a Feistel structure
    • uses 128, 192, or 256bit encryption key
    • Camellia-128
    • Camellia-198
    • Camellia-256

    CAST = Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares
    • patented by Entrust
    • CAST-128 aka cast-5 40-128 bit key, described in RFC-2144 and is royalty free, used by ssh2
    • CAST-256 aka cast-6 128, 160, 192, 224, 256 bit key, described in RFC-2612 and is royalty free

    DSA = Digital Signature Algorithm
    • can only be used for signing
    • DSA is a public-key algorithm, based on the Schnorr and ElGamal methods

    DH = Diffie-Helman
    • Original public-key system by Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman, Ralph Merkle
    • patented in 1977 and expired now

    DES = Data Encryption Standard ( block cipher )
    • started as Lucifer at IBM Research
    • patented by IBM in 70's
    • part of FIPS publication 46 (USA Federal Information Processing Standards ) in 1977
    • developed by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1977
    • 56-bit key size is too small for todays machines
    • DES algorithm is designed to encipher and decipher 64 bit blocks of data using a 56 bit key

    Trpiple-DES = 3DES
      csrc.nist.gov 800-20
    • encrypts data 3x with DES algorithm
    • 168 bit key but security is limited to 112 bits due to known exploits

    DSS = Digital Signature Standard
    • DH, DSA and SHA-1

    DSA = Digital Signature Algorithm
    • DSA was proposed by NIST.gov in August 1991 as part of DSS
    • ElGamal is an example

    ElGamal
    • ElGamal is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm

    IDEA = International Data Encryption Algorithm ( block cipher )
      ascom.ch
    • patented algorithm and trademarked by ascom.ch

    MARS = ( symmetric block cipher )
    RC4 = ArcFour
    • designed by Ron Rivest
    • up to 2048 bit key
    • RC4 is trademarked by RSADSI ( RSA Data Security, Inc )

    • RC2 by Ron Rivest
    • RC5 by Ron Rivest
    • RC6 designed by Ron Rivest, Matt Robshaw, Ray Sidney, and Yiqun Lisa Yin for AES

    RSA = Rivest-Shamir-Adleman
      RSA.com
      wikipedia.org RSA
    • by Rivest-Shamir-Adleman ( Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, Len Adleman )
    • ANSI X9.31
    • patented algorithm for signing and encrypting data

      rsa.com How large of a key size
      • 1024 bits for corporate use
      • 2048 bits for certificate authority

      • RSA-E can only be used for encryption .. but is deprecated by rfc4880
      • RSA-S can only be used for signing .. but is deprecated by rfc4880

      rsa.com Factoring Challenge
      Distributed.net RSA's RC5 72bit cipher challenge
      JavaMex.com RSA Keylengths
      • RSA-129 ( 426 bit key ) was factored in Mar 1994 after 8 months
      • RSA-155 ( 512 bit key ) was factored in Aug 1999 after 7 months on 300 PCs
      • RSA-512
      • RSA-640 ( 640 bit key ) was factored in 2005 in 350 cpu hrs ( 80 2.2Ghz opterons )

    Seal == Software-optimized Encryption Algorithm 1993 ( stream cipher )
    • Rogaway and Coppersmith
    • 160 bit key for encryption

    SEED
    • Used by KISA == Korean Information Security Agency

    Serpebt
    • Serpent
    • designed by Ross Anderson, Eli Biham and Lars Knudse

    SkipJack
      csrc.nist.gov SkipJack.pdf
      csrc.nist.gov 800-17
      ietf.org RFC 2773 Encryption using KEA and SkipJack
      cryptome.org
    • Skipjack was "Type 1" algorithm and declassified by NSA on June 23, 1998
    • encrypts and decrypts data in 64-bit blocks, using an 80-bit key
    • Skipjack encrypts 32 times unlike 3x for Triple-DES
    • Used in Clipper Chip and Fortezza PC card, but these have a "backdoor"
    • LEAF == Law Enforcement Access Field as part of Escrowed Encryption Standard

Hash Functions

    docstore.mik.ua Algorithms used by ssh1/ssh2

    crc-32 = Cyclic Redundancy Check
    • ISO 3309 = non-crypto

    MD5 = Message Digest algorithm number 5

    SHA-1 = Secure Hash Algorithm per FIPS PUB 180-1
      wikipedia.org SHA
      csrc.nist.gov SHA
    • designed by the NSA and NIST - Fips 180-1
    • produces 160bit hash
    • SHA-128
    • SHA-224
    • SHA-256 - aka sha2 = 32bit words
    • SHA-384
    • SHA-512 - aka sha2 = 64bot wprlds

    RIPEMD-160 = the RIPE Message Digest
      esat.kuleuven.ac.be
    • developed by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, and Bart Preneel as part of the European Community RIPE project
    • produces 160bit hash

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